Learning Pragmatic Routines during Study Abroad: A Focus on Proficiency and Type of Routine
AbstractThe present study explores pragmatic learning during study abroad (SA) programs, focusing on gains in learner recognition and production of pragmatic routines, and considers whether proficiency and type of routine play a role in this. One hundred and twenty-two international students in their first semester of study at US universities completed a pre-test and a post-test version of a vocabulary knowledge scale (VKS) and a written discourse-completion task (DCT). Pragmatic routines elicited for recognition were categorised according to how bound they are to specific situations, while production routines were operationalised in terms of prototypicality. The results revealed that knowledge of pragmatic routines increased during a semester abroad, particularly in terms of recognition. While this increase was unrelated to proficiency, type of routine did play a significant role. Students showed greater gains in recognition of situational routines and in production of those that are highly-prototypical. The findings of the study underline the importance of SA programs for the acquisition of pragmatic routines, and suggest that exposure to routines in relevant contexts enhances pragmatic development.Keywords: interlanguage pragmatics; study abroad; pragmatic routines; L2 pragmatic competence; recognition; production
Alcón, Eva. 2015. “Instruction and Pragmatic Change during Study Abroad Email Communication.” Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching 9 (1): 34-45.
Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen. 2008. “Recognition and Production of Formulas in L2 Pragmatics.” In Understanding Second Language Process, edited by Zhaohon Han, 205-222. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
—. 2009. “Conventional Expressions as a Pragmalinguistic Resource: Recognition and Production of Conventional Expressions in L2 Pragmatics.” Language Learning 59: 755-795.
Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen and Beverly S. Hartford. 1993. “Learning the Rules of Academic Talk: A Longitudinal Study of Pragmatic Change.” Studies in Second Language Acquisition 15: 279-304.
Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen and Maria-Thereza Bastos. 2011. “Proficiency, Length of Stay and Intensity of Interaction and the Acquisition of Conventional Expressions in L2 Pragmatics.” Intercultural Pragmatics 8: 347-384.
Barron, Anne. 2003. Acquisition in Interlanguage Pragmatics: Learning How to Do Things with Words in a Study Abroad Context. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Bataller, Rebeca. 2010. “Making a Request for a Service in Spanish: Pragmatic Development in the Study Abroad Setting.” Foreign Language Annals 43 (1): 160-175.
Coulmas, Florian. 1981. “Introduction: Conversational Routine.” In Conversational Routine, edited by Florian Coulmas, 1-17. The Hague: Mouton de Gruyter.
Iwasaki, Noriko. 2010. “Style Shifts among Japanese Learners Before and After Study Abroad in Japan: Becoming Active Social Agents in Japanese.” Applied Linguistics 31 (1): 45-71.
Kasper, Gabriele and Kenneth R. Rose. 2002. Pragmatic Development in a Second Language. Oxford: Blackwell.
Kecskes, Istvan. 2000. “Conceptual Fluency and the Use of Situation-bound Utterances in L2.” Links & Letters 7: 145-161.
Nattinger, James R. and Jeanette S. DeCarrico. 1992. Lexical Phrases and Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford UP.
Pawley, Andrew and Frances Hodgetts Syder. 1983. “Two Puzzles for Linguistic Theory: Nativelike Selection and Nativelike Fluency.” In Language and Communication, edited by Jack C. Richards and Richard W. Schmidt, 191-226. London: Longman.
Roever, Carsten. 2005. Testing ESL Pragmatics: Development and Validation of a Web-based Assessment Battery. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
Schauer, Gila. 2009. Interlanguage Pragmatic Development: The Study Abroad Context. London: Continuum.
Schmitt, Norbert and Ronald Carter. 2004. “Formulaic Sequences in Action: An Introduction.” In Formulaic Sequences: Acquisition, Processing and Use, edited by Norbert Schmitt, 1-22. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Schmitt, Norbert, Zoltán Dörney, Svenja Adolphs and Valerie Durow. 2004. “Knowledge and Acquisition of Formulaic Sequences.” In Formulaic Sequences: Acquisition, Processing and Use, edited by Norbert Schmitt, 55-86. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Taguchi, Naoko. 2011. “The Effect of L2 Proficiency and Study-Abroad Experience on Pragmatic Comprehension.” Language Learning 61 (3): 904-939.
—. 2013. “Production of Routines in L2 English: Effect of Proficiency and Study-Abroad Experience.” System 41: 109-121.
Taguchi, Naoko, Shuai Li and Feng Xiao. 2013. “Production of Formulaic Expressions in L2 Chinese: A Developmental Investigation in a Study Abroad Context.” Chinese as a Second Language Research Journal 2 (1): 23-58.
Wesche, Marjorie and T. Sima Paribakht. 1996. “Assessing Second Language Vocabulary Knowledge: Depth vs. Breadth.” Canadian Modern Language Review 53: 13-40.
Wray, Alison. 1999. “Formulaic Language in Learners and Native Speakers.” Language Teaching 32 (4): 213-231.
Xiao, Feng. 2015. “Adult Second Language Learners’ Pragmatic Development in the Study-Abroad Context: A Review.” Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad 25: 132-149.
The authors retain copyright of articles. They authorise AEDEAN to publish them in its journal Atlantis and to include them in the indexing and abstracting services, academic databases and repositories the journal participates in.
Under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial ShareAlike 4.0 International Licence (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0), for non-commercial (i.e., personal or academic) purposes only, users are free to share (i.e., copy and redistribute in any medium or format) and adapt (i.e., remix, transform and build upon) articles published in Atlantis, free of charge and without obtaining prior permission from the publisher or the author(s), as long as they give appropriate credit to the author, the journal (Atlantis) and the publisher (AEDEAN), provide the relevant URL link to the original publication and indicate if changes were made. Such attribution may be done in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the journal endorses the user or their use of the material published therein. Users who adapt (i.e., remix, transform or build upon the material) must distribute their contributions under the same licence as the original.
Self-archiving is also permitted, so that authors are allowed to deposit the published PDF version of their articles in academic and/or institutional repositories, without fee or embargo. Authors may also post their individual articles on their personal websites, again on condition that the original link to the online edition is provided.
Authors are expected to know and heed basic ground rules that preclude simultaneous submission and/or duplicate publication. Prospective contributors to Atlantis commit themselves to the following when they submit a manuscript:
- That no concurrent consideration of the same, or almost identical, work by any other journal and/or publisher is taking place.
- That the potential contribution has not appeared previously, in any form whatsoever, in another journal, electronic format or as a chapter/section of a book.
Seeking permission for the use of copyright material is the responsibility of the author.